There were apprentices is several
trades. They were very young, school age by today's standards.
There is thought to have been an Apprentice House at Ingersley
Clough mill - a boarding house for the resident apprentices.
One can be seen at Styal Mill. There are believed to have been
just four in all of Cheshire.
Assembled bales of finished cloth.
Billy Roller operator.
Responsible for bleaching the cotton thread or woven
cotton cloth to make it white.
Employed at Oak Bank mill where calico cloth was printed to
be sold mainly to the clothing industry.
Maintained the nails in the carding machine.
The cotton arrived at the mill in large bales of raw cotton.
Before it could be spun, it had to be put through a carding
machine which straightened the fibres to make them suitable
for spinning. The operator of this machine was a carder. More
As in horse and cart(er), provided transport for raw materials
and finished goods, coal, machinery, etc.
Responsible for keeping records of the business in hand.
Control room worker
The central office managing the flow of materials and their
processing through the mill.
Cop or Cone Winders
Responsible for loading empty bobbins on the machines and
removing them once full of thread.
This was part of the spinning process.
Responsible for replacing the empty rovings bobbins where
cotton was being fed into the spinning mule.
The doffer would doff, or remove, full bobbins from the cotton
spinning machine and replace them with empty bobbins.
Many processes in the mill produce an output of cotton requiring
further processing, and which would benefit from being merged
and twisted with similar outputs before that processing. The
doubler operated the doubling machines that carried this out. More
Shopkeeper who sold cotton fabrics (among other textiles).
[Not sure why they would have one in a mill, unless in the
mill shop selling off seconds.]
Drawing frame tender
The operator of a draw frame, which was used after carding
to bring a number of slivers of cotton together into one.
Woven cloth would be coloured. This was one of the dirtiest
jobs in a bleaching and dying mill. [See the picture on the
Lowerhouse mill page.]
One of the highest paid in the mill, the engineer was responsible
for keeping all the machinery running smoothly, identifying problems
and repairing breakdowns.
A child who would take messages around the mill.
Factory boy, girl, hand
Child or young person employed for general duties in the mill.
Employed not to put out fires but to keep the boiler furnaces
going, ensuring a head of steam sufficient to keep the engine
turning under the load from the mill machinery.
First level of management over the workforce, he was responsible
for seeing that everyone else was hard at work on the mill floor.
Hand loom weaver
A loom operator in a weaving mill. Weavers also operated
as home workers, working their own looms in the top floor garrets
of their cottages - look at the cottages at the bottom of Beeston
Brow. They would be on piece work (paid by the piece produced)
with the raw materials delivered to their door in exchange
for finished cloth to be returned to the mill.
Jack Frame Tenter
See Tenter below.
Unskilled, employed to undertake the many menial tasks around
In a weaving shed, the Loomer would thread the cotton ends
through the healds and reeds on the beam. More
Responsible for the running of the entire mill. You raised
your cap and touched your fore-lock to this chap. In the days
before employee protection the mill manager could dismiss on
a whim, no warning letter or redundancy pay in those days.
Worked under the engineer, maintaining and repairing mill machinery.
This job title is really a throw-back to the days of timber
built corn mills, either water or wind powered. The mill
wright was really an engineer in timber which included making
the water wheel or sails together with the wooden cogs (gears)
that transferred the power from the rotating power source to
the grinding stones. There was a lot of timber work in a cotton
mill so no doubt he was kept busy in the modern mill.
Minder, Self actor minder, Mule minder
Machine minder; Spinning mule minder.
With so much machinery working in the mill there was a constant
need for lubrication. The early machinery needed manual attention
from the oil can, on later machines there was an element of automation
but the oil containers still required topping up.
He who opens the
cotton bales and feeds it into an opener machine which fluffs
up the cotton and removes any seeds.
The shop floor supervisor kept his eye on the the whole process
and the workers to ensure smooth operation and to see that there
were no shirkers amongst the workers!
Two piecers were employed as assistants to a spinning mule
operator. They had to crawl under the mule to join broken threads
or join a new spindle of thread to that just completed. The
two threads were joined by wetting the forefinger and thumb
and rolling the two threads together. This job was usually
given to children or small young persons.
Prepared bobbins of yarn for use in the weaving shed.
Power loom weaver
As the weaving looms got bigger so they became power operated
and the operator became more of a machine minder, replacing empty
shuttles and watching for breaks in the threads, and the general
quality of the woven cloth.
Typically employed at Oak Bank cloth printing mill, he would
be responsible for operating the printing machines.
A job for a small boy. The drawing-in frame was part of a
weaving machine. The Reacher-in would pass the ends of the
threads, one by one and in order, to the Loomer who would thread
them over the healds and through the reeds on the beam. More
Roller coverer, Roll turner, Rover
Activities in the preparation between carding and spinning.
Sent out to sell the products coming out of the mill.
The scutcher operates a scutching machine which cleans impurities
such as seeds from the raw cotton immediately after it is broken
out of the bale and before it is carded. More on Wikipedia.
Responsible for weaving the finest of silk threads, sometimes
in the most intricate of designs employing large numbers of shuttles
each of a stunning colour.
Not the tuneful kind, but a sin-ger who looked after the gas
flames used to singe the whiskers off the thread. This resulted
in the woven thread having a smoother and shiny finish, a better
Slubber; Slubber Doffer
Spinning machine operator; The Doffer changed the bobbins
on the spinning machine.
Cotton spinner - minder of spinning machines.
One of the hardest and dirtiest jobs in any mill, he kept
the furnaces burning at full power by shovelling the coal through
the grate door. Very hot, dirty and sweaty work.
Stretcher or Tenter - freshly dyed or bleached cloth needed
to be stretched on frames to dry so that it did not shrink.
The cloth was secured on the frame by tenterhooks.
Tenter, Frame tenter, Throstle tenter, Hooker
A tenter placed the cloth on hooks to stretch it so preventing
shrinkage during further processing.
Large stocks of raw cotton and, hopefully, smaller stocks of
finished products had to be stored carefully, and he had to know
just where everything was so it could be extracted for use or
transport on demand.
Part of the weaving process - another name for a Loomer -
who prepared the warp on a drawing-in frame.
See singer above.
When the mill was silent at night the watchman had to look out
for intruders and for fire - there were no smoke detectors or
automatic fire alarms in those days!
The weaver would turn thread into cloth on a loom.
In Bollington they were known as Cop or Cone winders. They
were responsible for loading empty bobbins on the machines
and removing them once full of thread. This was part of the
[?] - I have yet to find a definitive definition of the jobs
Further reading: Wikipedia article on Textile Manufacturing.
This list is not exhaustive of the jobs found in cotton spinning
and weaving mills. The Wikipedia pages give more extensive descriptions
of processes and the activities of employees. Generally the list
above applies to those working in the cotton industry, but some
of the titles also applied to other industries, particularly
other textile industries.
My thanks go to those who researched and discovered the history
that is presented in these pages. Please
read the full acknowledgement of their remarkable achievement.
Your Historic Documents
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